25 Jan 2024
Citrus Pruning in the Mediterranean

Citrus Pruning in the Mediterranean Climate: A Review

Pruning is a common practice in citrus for various reasons. These include controlling and shaping the canopy; improving phytosanitary health, productivity, and fruit quality; and facilitating operations such as harvesting and phytosanitary treatments. Because pruning is an expensive operation, its need is sometimes questioned.


29 Sep 2023
Hand thinning citrus

Reviewing the Commercial Potential of Hand Thinning in Citrus with a Cost-benefit Analysis of Summer Hand Thinning of ‘Nadorcott’ Mandarin

Hand thinning is not often applied as a commercial cultural practice in citriculture due to the practice’s reliance on costly manual labor. However, hand thinning could provide unique benefits such as treatment selectivity and easier control over thinning intensity, as opposed to foliar sprays of chemical thinning agents. In ‘‘on-year’’ ‘Nadorcott’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata) trees, summer (January) and autumn (April) hand-thinning treatments of removal of all fruit <20 and <40 mm diameter were evaluated for effects on leaf carbohydrates and fruit growth rate. Other factors assessed included treatments’ effects on tree total fruit yield, fruit quality, and fruit size distribution. In addition, two different summer hand-thinning treatments (removal of all fruit <20 and <25 mm) were evaluated for effects on fruit size distribution and fruit yield over two seasons to determine their potential financial implications.


23 Jun 2022
Foliar Fertilizer

Properly Timing Foliar-applied Fertilizers Increases Efficacy: A Review and Update on Timing Foliar Nutrient Applications to Citrus and Avocado

Foliar fertilization efficiently meets the nutrient demand of tree fruit crops during periods when soil conditions (low or high temperatures, low or excess soil moisture, pH, salinity) render soil-applied fertilizers ineffective, when nutrients (e.g., phosphate, potassium, and trace elements) become fixed in the soil, and when tree nutrient demand is high. Applying nutrients directly to leaves ensures that the metabolic machinery of the tree is not compromised by low availability of an essential nutrient. It should be noted that phloem mobile nutrients applied to the foliage are translocated to all tree parts, even feeder roots.


28 Sep 2021
Sheet Mulching

Sheet-mulching Cultivation Promotes the Number of Floral Buds via Upregulation of Citrus Flowering Locus T Expression in Two Citrus Cultivars,‘Haraguchi-wase’ and ‘Harehime’

Sheet-mulching cultivation during the fruit developmental stage is often carried out to produce high-quality Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and ‘Harehime’ ((‘Kiyomi’ × ‘Osceola’) × ‘Miyagawa-wase’) fruits because they show high Brix% by exposure to drought stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on the number of floral buds in ‘Haraguchi-wase’ Satsuma mandarins and ‘Harehime’. To clarify the relationship between drought stress and the number of floral buds, we applied four different drying treatments to the fruit trees, (i) first-half drying (drying treatment during the first-half of the fruit development stage), (ii) second-half drying (drying treatment during the second-half of the fruit development stage), (iii) all-drying (drying during the full fruit development stage), and (iv) well-watered (non-drought stress during the fruit development stage). The drying treatment was applied to the fruits at ψ max −0.7 to −1.2 MPa at an intensity comparable to proper drought stress for high-quality fruit production according to our previous studies.


25 Jan 2021

Fruit load restricts the flowering promotion effect of paclobutrazol in alternate bearing Citrus spp.

The floral bud inductive period, PBZ promotes flowering in Citrus; however, our results indicate that this effect is fruit-load dependent. In ‘Salustiana’ and ‘Navelina’ sweet oranges, ‘Hernandina’ Clementine mandarin, and ‘Afourer’ and ‘Moncada’ hybrids, flowering intensity significantly increased the following spring for medium-to-low fruit-load trees treated with either 1–10 g PBZ tree−1 applied to the soil or 15 g tree−1 sprayed on the canopy. PBZ significantly increased the percentage of sprouted buds and leafless floral shoots (both single-flowered shoots and inflorescences) and reduced the number of vegetative shoots.