28 Apr 2021
Orange Blossom

Effects of gibberellin treatment during flowering induction period on global gene expression and the transcription of flowering-control genes in Citrus buds

As we enter the flower induction stage different factor control the amount of flowering for the next season. Gibberellic acid (GA) is a strong inhibitor for the flowering genes in Citrus. The aim of the study was to determine to what length GA has got an influence. GA was applied on citrus bud and the genetics analyzed and more Leafy mRNA were transcribed in these buds.

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25 Jan 2021

Fruit load restricts the flowering promotion effect of paclobutrazol in alternate bearing Citrus spp.

The floral bud inductive period, PBZ promotes flowering in Citrus; however, our results indicate that this effect is fruit-load dependent. In ‘Salustiana’ and ‘Navelina’ sweet oranges, ‘Hernandina’ Clementine mandarin, and ‘Afourer’ and ‘Moncada’ hybrids, flowering intensity significantly increased the following spring for medium-to-low fruit-load trees treated with either 1–10 g PBZ tree−1 applied to the soil or 15 g tree−1 sprayed on the canopy. PBZ significantly increased the percentage of sprouted buds and leafless floral shoots (both single-flowered shoots and inflorescences) and reduced the number of vegetative shoots.

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05 Dec 2020
Citrus Industry

SA’s citrus beats the world’s Covid blues

Despite the Covid-19 pandemic and all the uncertainties it caused, the 2020 citrus season turned out to be one of the best that South Africa has ever had. On estimate, South Africa exported 21.3 million cartons more than the previous season. Better access to US markets due to additional ports of entry, and access to Philippine markets, have contributed to an increase in demand for South African citrus.

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05 Dec 2020
Cover Crops

Cover crops for citrus

Cover crops are specific crops not intended for sale but for soil improvement and sustainability. They are increasingly common in the agricultural fields of the Midwest and other grain-producing regions because of the wide range of benefits not just for the soil, but also the cash crop. In those systems, cover crops improve water and nutrient retention, promote microbial activity, reduce weed growth and insect pests, and improve plant growth. Similar impacts have been found in tree crops like apples and peaches, where cover crops are planted in row middles.

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23 Nov 2020
Climate Change

Potential climate change impacts on citrus water requirement across major producing areas in the world.

Understanding how potential climate change will affect availability of water resources for citrus production globally is needed. The main goal of this study is to investigate impacts of potential future climate change on citrus irrigation requirements (IRR) in major global citrus producing regions, e.g., Africa, Asia, Australia, Mediterranean, Americas. The Irrigation Management System (IManSys) model was used to calculate optimum IRR for the baseline period (1986–2005) and two future periods (2055s and 2090s) subject to combination of five and seven temperature and precipitation levels, respectively. Predicted IRR show significant spatio-temporal variations across study regions. Future annual IRR are predicted to globally decrease; however, future monthly IRR showed mixed results.

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20 Oct 2020
Managing Salinity in Citrus

Managing Salinity in Citrus

Although citrus (Citrus spp.) is sensitive to salinity, acceptable production can be achieved with moderate salinity levels, depending on the climate, scion cultivar, rootstock, and irrigation-fertilizer management. Irrigation scheduling is a key factor in managing salinity in areas with salinity problems. Increasing irrigation frequency and applying water in excess of the crop water requirement are recommended to leach the salts and minimize the salt concentration in the root zone. Overhead sprinkler irrigation should be avoided when using water containing high levels of salts because salt residues can accumulate on the foliage and cause serious injury. Much of the leaf and trunk damage associated with direct foliar uptake of salts can be reduced by using microirrigation systems.

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23 Sep 2020
Citrus

Citrus industry negotiates a new trade deal

Cape Town – After eleven years of negotiations, South Africa’s citrus industry has been given the go-ahead to export to the Philippines, with the signing of a work plan between the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development, and the Philippines Bureau of Plant and Industry.

Agriculture Minister Thoko Didiza made the announcement yesterday as the South African citrus industry estimates that close to 500 000 tons of additional citrus would be available for export by 2024.

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23 Sep 2020
Coldling Moth

South Africa takes proactive FCM measures with its EU citrus exports

For the first time since 2018 when the South African citrus industry introduced its False Codling Moth Management System, the citrus industry has had to intervene in its normal functioning to manage false codling moth.

The decision to strengthen the shipping protocol for South Africa’s oranges for the rest of the season, on very short notice, is made possible by the agility of its systems approach, says Deon Joubert, Citrus Growers’ Association envoy to the EU. The system’s requirements for continuous, thorough orchard and fruit monitoring had made it clear to the industry that there was a lot of false codling moth activity this year.

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23 Sep 2020
Citrus rootstock evaluation

Citrus rootstock evaluation utilizing UAV-based remote sensing and artificial intelligence

The implementation of breeding methods requires the creation of a large and genetically diverse training population. Large-scale experiments are needed for the rapid acquisition of phenotypic data to explore the correlation between genomic and phenotypic information. Traditional sensing technologies forfield surveys and field phenotyping rely on manual sampling and are time consuming and labor intensive. Since availability of personnel trained for phenotyping is a major problem, small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) equipped with various sensors can simplify the surveying procedure, decrease data collection time, and reduce cost.

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26 Aug 2020
Lemons

2019–2020 Florida Citrus Production Guide: Plant Growth Regulators

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are a tool used to manipulate vegetative and reproductive growth, flowering, and fruit growth and development. PGRs have been successfully used in agriculture for decades to amend plant growth characteristics and maximize yield and thus grower profit. Foliar-applied PGRs are routinely used in various fruit crops for flower and fruit thinning, improving fruit set, growth and development, controlling vegetative growth, and reducing fruit drop. Citrus is no exception to the use of PGRs, which can provide significant economic advantages to citrus growers when used appropriately.

According to the Florida state legislature, PGRs are defined “as any substance or mixture of substances intended, through physiological action, for accelerating or retarding the rate of growth or maturation or for otherwise altering the behavior of ornamental or crop plants or the produce thereof, but not including substances intended as plant nutrients, trace elements, nutritional chemicals, plant inoculants, or soil amendments.”

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