25 Nov 2018
Botrytis cinerea

Rind distortion of lemon caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers

R. A. Fullerton, F. M. Harris & I. C. Hallett
(1999) Rind distortion of lemon caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers, New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science.

The infection process by Botrytis cinerea Pers on lemon fruits (Citrus Union (L.) Burm.), and development of rind distortion are described. Infections occur on juvenile fruitlets soon after petal fall from hyphae growing over the surface of the fruit from adjacent colonised flower debris. The hyphae form compact infection cushions at their tips. There is a collapse of epidermal cells and several layers of underlying cells in the vicinity of the infection cushion, leading to the formation of small necrotic pits on the surface of the fruit. As the fruitlets grow, there is generalised hyperplasia in a zone up to 20 cell layers deep in the region of the necrotic pits, leading to conspicuous outgrowths on the fruit surface.


25 Nov 2018
Lemons and Limes

South Africa sold 33% more lemons in Europe this year – and we can thank Argentina

Bombi Mavundza
Business Insider SA

Severe weather conditions have had a big impact on Argentina’s lemon and lime production, while ongoing political and economic woes cut into its ability to export.

And that has been great news for South African exporters.

Argentina’s output shortfall created unmet demand in Europe – and that in turn saw a 33% increase in lemon exports to Europe for this production year, according to figures from Exsa Europe, the Dutch-based importer with growers around the world.


25 Nov 2018
Citrus Export

South Africa: Citrus export ship to Asia is positive news


If the Western Cape were a country, it would be the world’s fifth largest exporter of citrus fruits.

South Africa is currently the second biggest exporter of citrus in the world after Spain, accounting for 10% of the global market. The Western Cape currently exports the majority share of this, at 62%, making it the largest exporter of citrus fruit in the Southern Hemisphere.

Over 6% of the global market share of citrus was exported from the Western Cape in 2017. To put this in perspective, China and the USA, which hold the spots as the world’s third and fourth biggest exporters, hold global market share of eight percent and 7 percent respectively.


23 Nov 2018
Non-compliance regarding FCM

South Africa under pressure to get it right on FCM and CBS

Carolize Jansen

DAFF proposes new recommendations to deal with loopholes and non-compliance regarding FCM

On 24 October, officials from the National Plant Protection Organisation of South Africa (NPPOZA) of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Citrus Growers’ Association gave growers, packhouses, forwarding agents, exporters and traders, an overview of the past season during the annual citrus coordinating meeting. It kicked off with an overview of the season in the European Union.READ MORE

06 Nov 2018

Potassium Affects Citrus Tree Performance

Y. Erner, B. Artzi, E. Tagari and M. Hamou
The Volcani Center, Institute of Horticulture, Department of Fruit Trees, Israel

Potassium plays a critical role in citrus trees and it affects many phenomena, both visible and invisible. The requirement for K in trees is next to that for nitrogen and ranges from 0.5 to 2% of dry matter. Adequate yield, for the fresh fruit market can be achieved only when the level of K is in the optimum range.


06 Nov 2018
Citrus Peel

Citrus peel as a source of functional ingredient: A review

Shafiya Rafiq, Rajkumari Kaul, S.A. Sofi, Nadia Bashir
Department of Food Science and Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Chatha,Jammu, J&K 180009, India
Fiza Nazir
Division of Post Harvest Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Shalimar, Srinagar J&K 190025, India
Gulzar Ahmad Nayik
Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148106, Punjab, India

King Saud University
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences

Citrus plants belonging to the family Rutaceae which include fruits such as orange, mandarin, lime, lemon, sour orange and grapefruit appear as a well known promising source of multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Processing of citrus by-products potentially represents a rich source of phenolic compounds and dietary fibre, owing to the large amount of peel produced. These citrus fruit residues, which are generally discarded as waste in the environment, can act as potential nutraceutical resources.


04 Nov 2018
Lemon Blossom

Crop manipulations during and after a heavy blossom

Jakkie Stander
Citrus Research International (CRI)

Citrus orchards are experiencing an intense blossom period, especially in the cooler production regions in the Eastern and Western Cape. Producers are reminded of the importance of the following cultural practices to manipulate the crop to ensure acceptable fruit size and quality.

The period during and immediately after flowering (September to December) is the cell division stage of fruit development. It is the period in which most cells of the fruit are formed. Flowers and fruit are particularly sensitive to water stress, carbohydrate depletion, and mineral nutrient deficiency during this period.